Incrementally Migrating from Apache to nginx

By · Published · apache, nginx, linux

I am currently in the process of migrating a bunch of sites on this machine from Apache to nginx. Rather than take everything down and migrate it all at once, I wanted to do this incrementally. But that raises a question: how do you incrementally migrate site configs from one to the other on the same machine, since both servers will need to be running and listening on ports 80 and 443?

The solution I came up with was to move Apache to different ports (8080 and 4443) and to set the default nginx config to be a reverse proxy!

First thing is to run a sed command to batch change all the port 80s in virtual host configs to 8080s.

$ sed -i -- 's/:80/:8080/g' *.conf

Then, edit /etc/apache2/ports.conf and changed the Listen directives from 80 to 8080. Then restart. You should now be able to hit all your existing sites on port 8080.

Next, install nginx.

$ sudo apt install nginx

Then, edit the /etc/sites-enabled/default file. Start by removing all the contents.

From there, it's like any standard nginx reverse proxy out there with one small difference: you have to pass the Host header back to Apache so that it can do the name-based virtual host lookups.

server {
    listen 80 default_server;
    proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:8080;
    proxy_set_header Host $host;
}

Restart nginx, and any unsecured sites you have should now be working.

Becuse this is the default config, adding more specific configs will override this, allowing you to start moving your configs over. nginx will use the local config if it exists, or pass it to apache if it doesn't.

But What About HTTPS?

For HTTPS, things are more complex.

Basically what we are doing now is creating a straight up TCP reverse proxy that will pass SSL through from Apache to the client, so we will need to leverage nginx's stream support. But, we need to check to be sure that we can't serve it natively from nginx before passing it off to Apache.

First, similar to above, convert all your old Apache configs to listen on 4443:

$ sed -i -- 's/:443/:4443/g' *.conf

Then, edit /etc/apache2/ports.conf and changed the Listen directives from 443 to 4443. Then restart. You should now be able to hit all your existing sites on port 4443.

Create a file called /etc/nginx/modules-enabled/999-default.conf and add the following config to it:

stream {
    map $ssl_preread_server_name $selected_upstream {
        default apache;
    }

    upstream apache {
        server 127.0.0.1:4443;
    }

    upstream nginx {
        server 127.0.0.1:4442;
    }

    server {
        listen 443;
        proxy_pass $selected_upstream;
        ssl_preread on;
    }
}

Now restart nginx, and you should be able to hit all your sites on either 80 or 443, HTTP or HTTPS and have everything work.

Now this is where things get a little hairy. As you are migrating configs, for SSL, you will need to have your new nginx configs listen in port 4442, and then update the map in the above. For example:

    map $ssl_preread_server_name $selected_upstream {
        robpeck.com nginx;
        default apache;
    }

Will now send SNI requests for robpeck.com to nginx on port 4442, where our config will take over and return the correct certificate and files. And once your migration is complete, you'll just need to remove the 999-default.conf file and convert all your nginx configs that listen on 4442 to listen on 443.

( Comments )

Did something I wrote help you out?

That's great! I don't earn any money from this site - I run no ads, sell no products and participate in no affiliate programs. I do this solely because it's fun; I enjoy writing and sharing what I learn.

All the same, if you found this article helpful and want to show your appreciation, here's my Amazon.com wishlist.


Related Posts

Zero Downtime nginx Letsencrypt Certificate Renewals Without the nginx Plugin

Automatically Provisioning Polycom Phones


comments powered by Disqus